ESLAO English as a Second Language, Level 1
Course Name/Grade/Title: English as a Second Language, Level 1, Open
Course Code: ESLAO
Credit Value: 1.0
Curriculum Policy Document: English as a Second Language and English Literacy Development, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 to 12, 2007
Course Developer: Toronto eSchool
Department: English as a Second Language
Department Head: Sonia, B.A., B.Ed., OCT
Development Date: 2017
Most Recent Revised Date: 2022
Course Description :
ESLAO course builds on students' previous education and language knowledge to introduce them to the English language and help them adjust to the diversity in their new environment. Students will use beginning English language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing for everyday and essential academic purposes. They will engage in short conversations using basic English language structures and simple sentence patterns; read short adapted texts; and write phrases and short sentences. The course also provides students with the knowledge and skills they need to begin to adapt to their new lives in Canada.
|Unit||Course Content and Overall Curriculum Expectations||Time and Sequence|
|1||Me and My Community
In this unit, students will demonstrate an understanding of basic school routines, the school and community environment, and expectations of the Ontario Catholic educational process. Using experiential learning and real life situations, students will be introduced to basic language structures (e.g. present tense, present continuous, prepositions, and simple punctuation), and vocabulary of school and community. In the culminating activity students will review all materials through a creative and collaborative project. This unit supports other units in that it provides the basis for successful transition to life in Canada.
|2||Day By Day
In this unit, students explore the role of the family in the Catholic community as well as a number of everyday survival themes and routines. Students develop vocabulary, knowledge of both oral and written English language patterns including skills in grammar and punctuation. This unit supports other units in that it prepares students for common Canadian activities.
In this unit, students will demonstrate a beginning awareness and appreciation of Canada's regional and cultural diversity. In addition, students will begin their journey towards becoming responsible citizens who give witness to Catholic social teaching by promoting peace, justice, and the sacredness of human life. Students will continue to build on basic language structures such as simple assertive and interrogative sentences, prepositions, and adjectives, as well as developing vocabulary and a knowledge of Canada and its culture. A culminating activity will provide opportunities for review and creativity using various media. This unit supports other units by developing an understanding of Canada, thus facilitating successful integration.
|4||Your Story - My Story
The students read for enjoyment from a variety of sources. They interact with honesty and sensitivity to each other as members of Christ's family. As effective communicators they speak, write, listen, and respond critically in the light of gospel values. Together the teacher and the students decide on themes for this final unit, which can include folklore, fairytales, and the immigrant experience using modified reading materials. They apply appropriate strategies to read, understand, and interpret information and ideas, and show through a variety of responses an understanding of the readings. In writing their personal stories they demonstrate correct language structures and a variety of styles as studied in the preceding units
This is a proctored exam worth 30% of your final grade.
| LISTENING AND SPEAKING |
1. demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety of purposes;
2. use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social purposes;
3. use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
1. read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
2. use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
3. use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
4. locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
1. write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
2. organize ideas coherently in writing;
3. use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation;
4. use the stages of the writing process.
|SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY|
1. use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
2. demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of the contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
3. demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
4. demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
All course material is online, no textbook purchase required. Resources and references for course materials will be provided on course webpage. Students are expected to watch and read all lecture videos and reading materials provided, and complete relevant exercises at student's time of continence.
As in a conventional classroom, instructors employ a range of strategies for teaching a course:
- Clear writing that connects English to real life texts
- Examples of activities and opportunities to learn along the way
- Direct instruction and coaching on student work by the teacher
In addition, teachers and students have at their disposal a number of tools that are unique to electronic learning environments:
- Electronic simulation activities
- Video presentations
- Discussion boards and email
- Assessments with real-time feedback
- Interactive activities that engage both the student and teacher in the subject
- Peer review and assessment
- Internet Instructional Videos
All course material is online, no textbook is required. Assignments are submitted electronically. Tests are completed online at a time convenient for the student, and the course ends in a final exam which the student writes under the supervision of a proctor approved by Toronto eSchool at a predetermined time and place. The final mark and report card are then forwarded to the student's home school.
Students must achieve the Ministry of Education learning expectations of a course and complete 110 hours of planned learning activities, both online and offline, in order to earn a course credit. Students must keep a learning log throughout their course which outlines the activities they have completed and their total learning hours. This log must be submitted before the final exam can be written.
The chart below indicates some general examples of online and offline activities.
|Online Learning Activities||Offline Learning Activities|
|Watching instructional videos||Reading materials for course|
|Watching additional resources videos||Studying instructional material|
|Completing online timed assignments||Practicing skills|
|Contributing to Forums||Completing assignments|
|Uploading video presentations||Completing essays|
|Communicating with instructor||Preparing presentations|
|Participating in live conferences||Reviewing for tests and exams|
|Practicing through online quizzes||Researching topics on internet|
|Reviewing peer submissions|
|Assessing peer presentations|
|Completing online timed exam|
Students are expected to access and participate actively in course work and course forums on a regular and frequent basis. This interaction with other students is a major component of this course and there are minimum requirements for student communication and contribution.
TorontoeSchool's approach to assessment and evaluation is based on the Ontario Ministry of Education's Growing Success 2010 document. Assessment is the process of gathering information that accurately reflects how well a student is achieving the curriculum expectations in a subject or course.
The primary purpose of assessment is to improve student learning. Assessment for this purpose is seen as both "assessment for learning" and "assessment as learning". As part of assessment for learning, teachers provide students with descriptive feedback and coaching for improvement. Teachers engage in assessment as learning by helping all students develop their capacity to be independent, autonomous learners who are able to set individual goals, monitor their own progress, determine next steps, and reflect on their thinking and learning. Toronto eSchool teachers use evidence from a variety of sources in their assessment. These include formal and informal observations, discussions, conversations, questioning, assignments, projects, portfolios, self-assessments, self-reflections, essays, and tests.
Assessment occurs concurrently and seamlessly with instruction. Our courses contain multiple opportunities for students to obtain information about their progress and achievement, and to receive feedback that will help them improve their learning. Students can monitor their own success through the tracking of learning goals and success criteria throughout all courses.
Summative "assessment of learning" activities occur at or near the end of periods of learning. Evidence of student achievement for evaluation is also collected over time from different sources, such as discussions, conversations and observation of the development of the student's learning. Using multiple sources of evidence increases the reliability and validity of this evaluation. The evaluations are expressed as a percentage based upon the levels of achievement.
|Assessment as Learning||Assessment for Learning||Assessment of Learning|
|Students are asked to submit an assignment at the end of every lesson wherein they have an opportunity to put into practice the skills they have learned and demonstrate these skills to their instructor as part of their overall grade. There is a rubric available at the end of every unit in the assessment section to review which covers all of the expectations for the lesson assignments.||In all Units, students are expected to submit a mid-unit assignment directly to the instructor. The assignment provides a number of questions, problems, and activities balanced around the four categories of the Achievement Chart: Knowledge and Understanding, Thinking, Application, and Communication. The instructor grades each assignment and provides descriptive feedback and the student is asked to provide feedback on the feedback.||Each Unit ends with an assignment that is submitted directly to the instructor. A grade is recorded based on the Learning Goals and Success Criteria for that Unit. Students may be asked to resubmit parts of the assignment, or a modified assignment.|
|Students will be asked to submit drafts to the instructor as well as post them on discussion forums. Feedback from both the instructor and the student can help the student advocate for their own learning.||The discussion forum is an area where students can engage in the learning and thinking process with each other, share ideas, reflect, and pool resources and strategies which will help in future assignments.||A Mid-Term Assignment and end of unit assessments ask students to synthesize their skills and knowledge in a culminating task that combines several units into one cohesive presentation. A grade is recorded and the instructor can initiate a conversation with the student if there are concerns.|
|Instructors communicate with their students through email or live chat sessions. Students can raise concerns and reflect on their own personal goals and learning during these one to one conversations with their instructors.||At the end of the course, students complete a final exam that covers all the material studied in the course.|
|I can use grammar conventions to correctly communicate my intended meaning clearly|
|I can use punctuation correctly to communicate my intended meaning|
|I can use knowledge of spelling rules and patterns, several different types of resources and appropriate strategies to spell familiar and new words correctly|
|I can build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meanings and reviewing word choice|
|I can use appropriate decoding strategies to read and understand unfamiliar words|
Growing Successarticulates the vision the Ministry has for the purpose and structure of assessment and evaluation techniques. There are seven fundamental principles that ensure best
practices and procedures of assessment and evaluation by Toronto eSchool teachers.
Assessment and evaluations:
- are fair, transparent, and equitable for all students;
- support all students, including those with special education needs, those who are learning the language of instruction (English or French), and those who are First Nation, Metis, or Inuit;
- are carefully planned to relate to the curriculum expectations and learning goals and, as much as possible, to the interests, learning styles and preferences, needs, and experiences of all students;
- are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the school year or course and at other appropriate points throughout the school year or course;
- are ongoing, varied in nature, and administered over a period of time to provide multiple opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning;
- provide ongoing descriptive feedback that is clear, specific, meaningful, and timely to support improved learning and achievement;
- develop students self-assessment skills to enable them to assess their own learning, set specific goals, and plan next steps for their learning.
The evaluation for this course is based on the student's achievement of curriculum expectations and the demonstrated skills required for effective learning. The percentage grade represents the quality of the student's overall achievement of the expectations for the course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline. A credit is granted and recorded for this course if the student's grade is 50% or higher. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:
- 70% of the grade will be based upon evaluations conducted throughout the course. This portion of the grade will reflect the student's most consistent level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration will be given to more recent evidence of achievement.
- 30% of the grade will be based on a final assessment, which may be a final exam, a final project, or a combination of both an exam and a project.
The general balance of weighting of the categories of the achievement chart throughout the course is
|Knowledge and Understanding||25%|
Two official report cards are issued - midterm and final. Each report card will focus on two distinct but related aspects of student achievement. First, the achievement of curriculum expectations is reported as a percentage grade. Additionally, the course median is reported as a percentage. The teacher will also provide written comments concerning the student's strengths, areas for improvement and next steps. Second, the learning skills are reported as a letter grade, representing one of four levels of accomplishment. The report cards contain separate sections for the reporting of these two aspects. The report card also indicates whether an OSSD credit has been earned.
The implementation of antidiscrimination principles in education influences all aspects of school life. It promotes a school climate that encourages all students to work to high standards, affirms the worth of all students, and helps them strengthen their sense of identity and develop a positive self-image. It encourages staff and students alike to value and show respect for diversity in the school and the wider society. It requires schools to adopt measures to provide a safe environment for learning, free from harassment, violence, and expressions of hate. Antidiscrimination education encourages students to think critically about themselves and others in the world around them in order to promote fairness, healthy relationships, and active, responsible citizenship. The ESL and ELD program provides many opportunities to support the principles relating to antidiscrimination education. The ESL and ELD program should enable students to recognize the contributions of various cultures to Canada including the unique role of Aboriginal people in the historical and cultural development of the country. The wealth of linguistic and cultural diversity in ESL and ELD classrooms allows students to share information with each other about their own languages and cultures and about their experiences of their native countries and as newcomers to Canada. This will help students to develop a sense of personal identity and belonging. Teachers should seek to provide inclusive learning resources and materials representing diverse cultures, backgrounds, and experiences in order to reinforce students' self-identity. Both students and teachers should explore aspects of intercultural communication - for example, how different cultures interpret the use of eye contact and body language in conversation and during presentations. Teachers should be aware of global events that may affect students and that can also be used as opportunities for instruction.
ACHIEVEMENT CHART - ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT, GRADES 9-12
|Knowledge and Understanding - Subject-specific content acquired in each course (knowledge), and the comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding)|
|Knowledge of content
(e.g., vocabulary, grammatical structures, punctuation, terminology, forms of text and media)
|demonstrates limited knowledge of content||demonstrates some knowledge of content||demonstrates considerable knowledge of content||demonstrates thorough knowledge of content|
|Understanding of content
(e.g., information and ideas, themes in novels and short stories, literary devices, language variety)
|demonstrates limited understanding of content||demonstrates some understanding of content||demonstrates considerable understanding of content||demonstrates thorough and insightful understanding of content|
|Thinking - The use of critical and creative thinking skills and/or processes|
|Use of planning skills
(e.g.,focusing an inquiry, gathering information, organizing a project)
|uses planning skills with limited effectiveness||uses planning skills with moderate effectiveness||uses planning skills with considerable effectiveness||uses planning skills with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Use of processing skills
(et, selecting, analysing, generating, integrating, synthesizing, evaluating, forming conclusions)
|uses processing skills with limited effectiveness||uses processing skills with some effectiveness||uses processing skills with considerable effectiveness||uses processing skills with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Use of critical/creative thinking processes
(e.g., reading process, writing process, oral discourse, research)
|uses critical / creative thinking processes with limited effectiveness||uses critical / creative thinking processes with some effectiveness||uses critical / creative thinking processes with considerable effectiveness||uses critical / creative thinking processes with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Communication - The conveying of meaning through various forms|
|Expression and organization of ideas and information in oral and visual forms (e.g., presentations, dialogues, discussions, role playing, debates, graphic texts, media works) and written forms(e.g., journals, notes, narratives, reports, resumes, stories, poems)||expresses and organizes ideas and information with limited effectiveness||expresses and organizes ideas and information with some effectiveness||expresses and organizes ideas and information with considerable effectiveness||expresses and organizes ideas and information with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Communication for different audiences and purposes in oral, visual, and written forms (e.g., presentations, dialogues, discussions, role playing, debates, graphic texts, media works)||communicates for different audiences and purposes with limited effectiveness||communicates for different audiences and purposes with some effectiveness||communicates for different audiences and purposes with considerable effectiveness||communicates for different audiences and purposes with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Use of conventions (e.g., grammatical structures, spelling, punctuation, style, usage), vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline in oral, visual, and written forms||uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with limited effectiveness||uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with some effectiveness||uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with considerable effectiveness||uses conventions, vocabulary, and terminology of the discipline with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Application - The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between various contexts|
|Application of knowledge and skills (e.g., language knowledge, languagelearning strategies, reading strategies,vocabularybuilding strategies) in familiar contexts||applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with limited effectiveness||applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with some effectiveness||applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with considerable effectiveness||applies knowledge and skills in familiar contexts with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Transfer of knowledge and skills (e.g., language knowledge, language learning strategies, reading strategies, vocabulary building strategies) to new contexts||transfers knowledge and skills to new contexts with limited effectiveness||transfers knowledge and skills to new contexts with some effectiveness||transfers knowledge and skills to new contexts with considerable effectiveness||transfers knowledge and skills to new contexts with a high degree of effectiveness|
|Making connections within and between various contexts (e.g., between the language and the social and cultural environment, including the school; between learning English and becoming aware of citizen responsibilities, developing personal and career goals, and understanding cultural references in literature)||makes connections within and between various contexts with limited effectiveness||makes connections within and between various contexts with some effectiveness||makes connections within and between various contexts with considerable effectiveness||makes connections within and between various contexts with a high degree of effectiveness|
- Access to ESL online course of study
- Access to a computer and microphone to record and upload audio and video recordings
- Access to a scanner or digital camera
- Access to a spreadsheet and word-processing software
- Access to Youtube
Note: This course is entirely online and does not require or rely on any textbook.
Teachers who are planning a program in this subject will make an effort to take into account considerations for program planning that align with the Ontario Ministry of Education policy and initiatives in a number of important areas
- Education for students with special education needs
- Environmental education
- Equity and inclusive education
- Financial literacy education
- Ontario First Nations, Metis, and Inuit education
- Role of information and communications technology
- English language learners
- Career education
- Cooperative education and other workplace experiences
- Health and safety
1. Education for Students with Special Education Needs:
Torontoeschool is committed to ensuring that all students are provided with the learning opportunities and supports they require to gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence they need to succeed in a rapidly changing society. The context of special education and the provision of special education programs and services for exceptional students in Ontario are constantly evolving. Provisions included in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Ontario Human Rights Code have driven some of these changes. Others have resulted from the evolution and sharing of best practices related to the teaching and assessment of students with special educational needs.
The provision of special education programs and services for students at Torontoeschool rests within a legal framework The Education Act and the regulations related to it set out the legal responsibilities pertaining to special education. They provide comprehensive procedures for the identification of exceptional pupils, for the placement of those pupils in educational settings where the special education programs and services appropriate to their needs can be delivered, and for the review of the identification of exceptional pupils and their placement.
Teachers will take into account the needs of exceptional students as set out in the students' Individual Education Plan. The online courses offer a vast array of opportunities for students with special educations needs to acquire the knowledge and skills required for our evolving society. Students who use alternative techniques for communication may find a venue to use these special skills in these courses. There are a number of technical and learning aids that can assist in meeting the needs of exceptional students as set out in their Individual Education Plan. In the process of taking their online course, students may use a personal amplification system, tela-typewriter (via Bell relay service), an oral or a sign-language interpreter, a scribe, specialized computer programs, time extensions, ability to change font size, oral readers, etc.
2. Environmental Education:
Environmental education teaches students about how the planet's physical and biological systems work, and how we can create a more sustainable future. Good curriculum design allows environmental issues and topics to be woven in and out of the online course content. This ensures that the student will have opportunities to acquire the knowledge, skills, perspectives and practices needed to become an environmentally literate citizen. The online course should provide opportunities for each student to address environmental issues in their home, in their local community, or even at the global level.
3. Equity and Inclusive Education:
Torontoeschool is taking important steps to reduce discrimination and embrace diversity in our online school in order to improve overall student achievement and reduce achievement gaps due to discrimination. The Ontario Equity and Inclusive Education Strategy was launched in April 2009 and states that all members of the Torontoeschool community are to be treated with respect and dignity. This strategy is helping Torontoeschool educators better identify and remove discriminatory biases and systemic barriers to student achievement. These barriers related to racism, sexism, homophobia and other forms of discrimination may prevent some students from reaching their full potential. The strategy supports the Ministry's key education priorities of high student achievement, reduced gaps in student achievement and increased accountability and public confidence in Ontario's schools. Students, regardless of their background or personal circumstances, must be given every opportunity to reach their full potential. Research shows that when students feel welcomed and accepted in their school, they are more likely to succeed academically. Torontoeschool desires to create a culture of high expectations where factors such as race, age, gender, sexual orientation and socio-economic status do not prevent students from achieving ambitious outcomes.
4. Financial Literacy Education:
Financial literacy may be defined as having the knowledge and skills needed to make responsible economic and financial decisions with competence and confidence. Since making financial decisions has become an increasingly complex task in the modern world, students need to have knowledge in various areas and a wide range of skills in order to make informed decisions about financial matters. Students need to be aware of risks that accompany various financial choices. They need to develop an understanding of world economic forces as well as ways in which they themselves can respond to those influences and make informed choices. Torontoeschool considers it essential that financial literacy be considered an important attribute of a well-educated population. In addition to acquiring knowledge in such specific areas as saving, spending, borrowing, and investing, students need to develop skills in problem solving, inquiry, decision making, critical thinking, and critical literacy related to financial and other issues. The goal is to help students acquire the knowledge and skills that will enable them to understand and respond to complex issues regarding their own personal finances and the finances of their families, as well as to develop an understanding of local and global effects of world economic forces and the social, environmental, and ethical implications of their own choices as consumers. The Ministry of Education and Torontoeschool are working to embed financial literacy expectations and opportunities in all courses as appropriate, as part of the ongoing curriculum review process.
5. Ontario First Nations, Metis, and Inuit Education:
First Nation, Metis, and Inuit students in Ontario will need to have the knowledge, skills, and confidence they need to successfully complete their elementary and secondary education in order to pursue postsecondary education or training and/or to enter the workforce. They will need to have the traditional and contemporary knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be socially contributive, politically active, and economically prosperous citizens of the world. All students in Ontario will need to have knowledge and appreciation of contemporary and traditional First Nation, Metis, and Inuit traditions, cultures, and perspectives. Torontoeschool and the Ministry of Education are committed to First Nation, Metis, and Inuit student success. Torontoeschool teachers are committed to (1) developing strategies that will increase the capacity of the education system to respond to the learning and cultural needs of First Nation, Metis, and Inuit students; (2) providing quality programs, services, and resources to help create learning opportunities for First Nation, Metis, and Inuit students that support improved academic achievement and identity building; (3) providing a curriculum that facilitates learning about contemporary and traditional First Nation, Metis, and Inuit cultures, histories, and perspectives among all students where possible; and (4) developing and implementing strategies that facilitate increased participation by First Nation, Metis, and Inuit parents, students, communities, and organizations in working to support the academic success of the student.
6. The Role of Information and Communications Technology in the Curriculum.
Information literacy is the ability to access, select, gather, critically evaluate, and create information. Communication literacy refers to the ability to communicate information and to use the information obtained to solve problems and make decisions. Information and communications technologies are utilized by all Torontoeschool students when the situation is appropriate within their online course. As a result, students will develop transferable skills through their experience with word processing, internet research, presentation software, and telecommunication tools, as would be expected in any other course or any business environment.
7. English Language Learners:
This Torontoeschool online course can provide a wide range of options to address the needs of ESL/ELD students. This online course must be flexible in order to accommodate the needs of students who require instruction in English as a second language or English literacy development. The Torontoeschool teacher considers it to be their responsibility to help students develop their ability to use the English language properly. Appropriate modifications to teaching, learning, and evaluation strategies in this course may be made in order to help students gain proficiency in English, since students taking English as a second language at the secondary level have limited time in which to develop this proficiency. This online course can provide a wide range of options to address the needs of ESL/ELD students. Well written content will aid ESL students in mastering not only the content of this course, but as well, the English language and all of its idiosyncrasies. Torontoeschool has created course content to enrich the student's learning experience. In addition, since many occupations in Canada require employees with capabilities in the English language, many students will learn English language skills which can contribute to their success in the larger world.
8. Career Education:
As the online student progresses through their online course, their teacher is available to help the student prepare for employment in a huge number of diverse areas. With the help of their teacher, students will learn to set and achieve goals and will gain experience in making meaningful decisions concerning their career choices. The skills, knowledge and creativity that students acquire through this online course are essential for a wide range of careers. Throughout their secondary school education, students will learn about the educational and career opportunities that are available to them; explore and evaluate a variety of those opportunities; relate what they learn in their courses to potential careers in a variety of fields; and learn to make appropriate educational and career choices.
9. Cooperative Education and Other Workplace Experiences:
By applying the skills they have developed, students will readily connect their classroom learning to real-life activities in the world in which they live. Cooperative education and other workplace experiences will broaden their knowledge of employment opportunities in a wide range of fields. In addition, students will increase their understanding of workplace practices and the nature of the employer-employee relationship. Torontoeschool teachers will try to help students link to Ministry programs to ensure that students have information concerning programs and opportunities.
10. Health and Safety:
Students who are recent arrivals from other countries may need special health and safety information while they are learning the language of instruction. The ESL and ELD program should include health and safety topics, especially in Level 1 and 2 courses. For example, students should learn to read warning signs and notices and respond appropriately to them, and should be made familiar with emergency procedures at school and in the community. Some newcomer students who are adjusting to new foods and ways of buying, storing, and preparing food need information about nutrition and food shopping (e.g., expiry dates, nutritional labelling). Other topics that should be covered include appropriate names for parts of the body and biological processes, and health-care services. It is important to value cultural differences in these areas while ensuring that students receive key information related to their health and well-being.