GLC2O Career Studies Grade 10 Course Outline

CGC1D Issues in Canadian Geography, 9 Academic

Course Title: CGC1D Issues in Canadian Geography, 9 Academic
Course Name: Issues in Canadian Geography
Course Code: CGC1D
Grade: 9
Credit Value: 1.0
Prerequisite: None
Curriculum Policy Document: Canadian and World Studies, The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10, 2013 (Revised)
Course Developer: Torontoeschool (Ontario)
Department: Canadian and World Studies
Developed By/Date: Toronto eSchool, 2016
Revised By/Date: Toronto eSchool, 2018

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This course explores Canada's distinct and changing character and the geographic systems and relationships that shape it. Students will investigate the interactions of natural and human systems within Canada, as well as Canada's economic, cultural, and environmental connections to other countries. Students will use a variety of geotechnologies and inquiry and communication methods to analyse and evaluate geographic issues and present their findings.


Strand A - Geographic Inquiry and Skill Development
  • Geographic Inquiry: use the geographic inquiry process and the concepts of geographic thinking when investigating issues relating to Canadian geography
  • Developing Transferable Skills: apply in everyday contexts skills, including spatial technology skills, developed through the investigation of Canadian geography, and identify some careers in which a background in geography might be an asset
Strand B - Interactions in the Physical Environment
  • analyse various interactions between physical processes, phenomena, and events and human activities in Canada
  • analyse characteristics of various physical processes, phenomena, and events affecting Canada and their interrelationship with global physical systems
  • describe various characteristics of the natural environment and the spatial distribution of physical features in Canada, and explain the role of physical processes, phenomena, and events in shaping them
Strand C - Managing Canada's Resources and Industries
  • analyse impacts of resource policy, resource management, and consumer choices on resource sustainability in Canada
  • analyse issues related to the distribution, availability, and development of natural resources in Canada from a geographic perspective
  • assess the relative importance of different industrial sectors to the Canadian economy and Canada's place in the global economy, and analyse factors that influence the location of industries in these sectors
Strand D - Changing Populations
  • analyse selected national and global population issues and their implications for Canada
  • describe the diversity of Canada's population, and assess some social, economic, political, and environmental implications of immigration and diversity for Canada
  • analyse patterns of population settlement and various demographic characteristics of the Canadian population
Strand E - Liveable Communities
  • analyse issues relating to the sustainability of human systems in Canada
  • analyse impacts of urban growth in Canada
  • analyse characteristics of land use in various Canadian communities, and explain how some factors influence land-use patterns


Unit Course Content and Overall Curriculum Expectations Time
1 Geographic Inquiry and Skill Development
In this unit students will be introduced to various concepts examined by the discipline of geography. Students will investigate human and geographic systems and will be given the opportunity to develop skills in geographic inquiry through the creation, analysis, and interpretation of a variety of geographic representations (including graphs, maps, data charts and organizers).
20 hours
2 Interactions in the Physical Environment
In this unit students will explore the characteristics of natural and human systems as well as urban and rural environments. Students will be exploring different factors which can cause change in both human and natural systems.
25 hours
3 Changing Populations
In this unit students will develop research skills as they explore the relationship and interaction of human and natural systems. Students will analyze the regional distribution patterns of Aboriginal peoples and immigrant groups. This unit will look at the environmental challenges and threats being imposed on this nation (such as the examination of Canada's First Nations).
15 hours
4 Managing Canada's Resources and Industries
In this unit students will examine the importance of each category of industry to Canada. Students will also examine the sectors of mining, forestry, fisheries, agriculture, communications, manufacturing, service and transportation and their role in Canada's economy past and present.
25 hours
5 Liveable Communities
This unit will explore similarities and differences among the world's nations and examines the flow of people, goods, and information. Students will also discover Canada's connections and changing relationships with other people and countries around the world. Students will be introduced to the important of budgeting and saving their money in relation to the environment and expenses that may accrued through the use of resources and hydro.
25 hours
Total 110 hours


  • Direct Instruction/Note Taking
  • Reading
  • Case Studies
  • Structured Discussion
  • Brainstorming
  • Role-Play
  • Group Work/Pair Work
  • Independent Study/Research
  • Self-Analysis
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • Jigsaw/Expert Groups
  • Conference

Assessment: The process of gathering information that accurately reflects how well a student is achieving the identified curriculum expectations. Teachers provide students with descriptive feedback that guides their efforts towards improved performance.

Evaluation: Assessment of Learning focuses on evaluation, which is the process of making a judgment about the quality of student work on the basis of established criteria over a limited, reasonable period of time.

Reporting: Involves communicating student achievement of the curriculum expectations and learning skills and work habits in the form of marks and comments as determined by the teacher's use of professional judgement.

Strategies for Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment for Learning Assessment as Learning
  • Anecdotal notes
  • Journals
  • Homework assignments
  • Focussed questioning in class
  • Observations
  • Individual conference meetings
  • Diagnostic quizzes or questionnaires
  • Pop-quizzes
  • Structured group discussions
  • Exit cards
  • Learning logs
  • Quizzes
  • Reference charts
  • Self assessment rubrics
  • Peer evaluation
  • Concept maps
  • Mind maps
  • Word webs
  • Graphic organizers (Venn Diagrams, KWHL table, SWOT, etc.)

Instructional Approaches
Instructional approaches should be informed by the findings of current research on instructional practices that have proved effective in the classroom. For example, research has provided compelling evidence about the benefits of the explicit teaching of strategies that can help students develop a deeper understanding of concepts. Strategies such as "compare and contrast" (e.g., through Venn diagrams and comparison matrices) and the use of analogy give students opportunities to examine concepts in ways that help them see what the concepts are and what they are not. Although such strategies are simple to use, teaching them explicitly is important in order to ensure that all students use them effectively.
A well-planned instructional program should always be at the student's level, but it should also push the student towards his or her optimal level of challenge for learning, while providing the support and anticipating and directly teaching the skills that are required for success.

Accommodations will be based on meeting with parent, teachers, administration and external educational assessment report. The following three types of accommodations may be provided:

Instructional accommodations: such as changes in teaching strategies, including styles of presentation, methods of organization, or use of technology and multimedia;
Environmental accommodations: such as preferential seating or special lighting;
Assessment accommodations: such as allowing additional time to complete tests/assignments or permitting oral responses to test questions.

Other examples of modifications and aids, which may be used in this course, are:

  • Provide step-by-step instructions
  • Help students create organizers for planning writing tasks
  • Record key words on the board or overhead when students are expected to make their own notes
  • Allow students to report verbally to a scribe (teacher or student) who can then help in note taking
  • Permit students a range of options for reading and writing tasks
  • Where an activity requires reading, provide it in advance
  • Provide opportunities for enrichment

An understanding of students' strengths and needs, as well as of their backgrounds and life experiences, can help teachers plan effective instruction and assessment. Teachers continually build their awareness of students' learning strengths and needs by observing and assessing their readiness to learn, their interests, and their learning styles and preferences. As teachers develop and deepen their understanding of individual students, they can respond more effectively to the students' needs by differentiating instructional approaches - adjusting the method or pace of instruction, using different types of resources, allowing a wider choice of topics, even adjusting the learning environment, if appropriate, to suit the way their students learn and how they are best able to demonstrate their learning. Unless students have an Individual Education Plan with modified curriculum expectations, what they learn continues to be guided by the curriculum expectations and remains the same for all students.

The document A Sound Investment: Financial Literacy Education in Ontario Schools, 2010 (p. 4) sets out the vision that:

Ontario students will have the skills and knowledge to take responsibility for managing their personal financial well being with confidence, competence, and a compassionate awareness of the world around them.

There is a growing recognition that the education system has a vital role to play in preparing young people to take their place as informed, engaged, and knowledgeable citizens in the global economy. Financial literacy education can provide the preparation Ontario students need to make informed decisions and choices in a complex and fast-changing financial world.

One of the elements of the vision for the social studies, history, geography, and Canadian and world studies programs is to enable students to become responsible, active citizens who are informed and critically thoughtful. Financial literacy is connected to this element. In the Canadian and world studies program, students have multiple opportunities to investigate and study financial literacy concepts related to the course expectations.

For example, in Economic Industries (CGC1D) in Grade 9, students develop their understanding of economic goal setting for various stakeholders in the economy, including the government, firms, and consumers and how it is impacts through the mismanagement of natural resources. Students may also be enabled to connect personal finances to global issues. A resource document - The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9-12: Financial Literacy Scope and Sequence of Expectations, 2011 - has been prepared to assist teachers in bringing financial literacy into the classroom. This document identifies the curriculum expectations and related examples and prompts, in disciplines across the Ontario curriculum, through which students can acquire skills and knowledge related to financial literacy. The document can also be used to make curriculum connections to school-wide initiatives that support financial literacy. This publication is available on the Ministry of Education's website, at

The Ontario Student Transcript (OST) is an official document issued by public, Catholic, inspected private schools in Ontario or Ontario International Schools. The OST contains a list of the courses completed, withdrawals from courses occurring 5 days or longer after the midterm report card has been issued, repeated courses in Grades 11 and 12, and equivalent credits granted for work in non-inspected Ontario private schools or schools outside of Ontario. The OST is stored in the Ontario Student Record (OSR) and retained for 55 years after a student retires from school. If the student is currently attending another school - public or private - and is simply taking a single course from Torontoeschool, then that student's OSR continues to reside at the school that the student is attending. Upon completion of the course Torontoeschool will send a copy of the OST back to the home school where the course will be added to the ongoing list of courses on the student's transcript.

Information and communications technology (ICT) provides a range of tools that can significantly extend and enrich teachers' instructional strategies and support student learning. ICT tools include multimedia resources, databases, websites, digital cameras, and word-processing programs. Tools such as these can help students to collect, organize, and sort the data they gather and to write, edit, and present reports on their findings. ICT can also be used to connect students to other schools, at home and abroad, and to bring the global community into the local classroom.

Ontario's education system will prepare students with the knowledge, skills, perspectives, and practices they need to be environmentally responsible citizens. Students will understand our fundamental connections to each other and to the world around us through our relationship to food, water, energy, air, and land, and our interaction with all living things. The education system will provide opportunities within the classroom and the community for students to engage in actions that deepen this understanding.

Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow: A Policy Framework for Environmental Education in Ontario Schools, 2009, p. 6

Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow: A Policy Framework for Environmental Education in Ontario Schools outlines an approach to environmental education that recognizes the needs of all Ontario students and promotes environmental responsibility in the operations of all levels of the education system.

There are many opportunities to integrate environmental education into the teaching of Canadian and world studies. In all subjects of this program, students can be encouraged to explore a range of environmental issues. In Geography, students learn that the responsibilities of citizenship include the protection and stewardship of the global commons, such as air and water, on a local, national, and global scale. This course also provides opportunities for students to explore various environmental issues of geographical importance.

The knowledge and skills students acquire in courses will be useful in a variety of careers. For example, the study of economics increases students' awareness of the ways in which local and global events and trends affect not only the economy but also their own career opportunities. A background in geography, history, politics, or law can lead to employment in fields such as law, politics, resource management, information technology, teaching, recreation, hospitality and tourism, and journalism. Students should be made aware of these possibilities and encouraged to explore areas of interest to them.

Antidiscrimination education promotes a school climate and classroom practice that encourage all students to work to high standards, ensure that they are given a variety of opportunities to be successful, affirm their self-worth, and help them strengthen their sense of identity and positive selfimage.

The curriculum is designed to help students acquire the habits of mind that are essential in a complex democratic society characterized by rapid technological, economic, political, and social change. These include respect and understanding with regard to individuals, groups, and cultures in Canada and the global community, including an appreciation and valuing of the contributions of Aboriginal people to the richness and diversity of Canadian life. Learning the importance of protecting human rights and of taking a stand against racism and other expressions of hatred and discrimination is also part of the foundation for responsible citizenship and ethical business practice.



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